In fact, rice is grown in rice fields for one simple purpose – to control weeds. Not affected by floods, the rice plant thrives while its competitors drown. Water is a natural form of herbicide. However, growing in water is not required, which is what makes rice such an interesting grain for home gardeners. It will thrive in the same conditions as many of our favorite summer annuals, including begonias, coleus and sweet potatoes.
Grown worldwide, rice is a staple food for more than half the world’s population. In many countries, it is grown on a small scale for personal consumption and for sale locally. But in the United States, most people have no idea how to open a rice farm.
In general, rice grows best in areas with high average daytime temperatures, but cool at night during the growing season, according to the US Department of Agriculture. In addition, rice will grow best in an area that has enough water and a flat surface with subsoil that prevents water seepage. At the same time, farmers around the world have proven that certain varieties of rice can be grown without irrigation systems and flooding. In addition, some varieties of rice are successfully grown in the northern United States.
Nifty gritty of growing rice
Most believe that rice plants grow only in flooded rice fields. But did you know that there is a way that doesn’t require flooding your backyard? Mountain rice thrives as long as it has the right soil and gets enough water. In this article we will tell you how to grow rice in your garden. Rice is a grain with thousands of varieties. White rice, long grain rice and brown rice are sold in every grocery store. But mass-produced species are exposed to pesticides, which can be harmful to swallow, and some organically grown brown rice can be expensive to store.
Container or in the ground? Where is the best?
Why not try growing rice at home in containers or in the ground? With the right humidity, the right rice seeds and the right time, you will grow rice in the shortest possible time. And you will have your own brown rice or a harvest of long grain. Learning to grow rice at home is a fun and rewarding process. Whether you decide to fill your garden with alpine or lowland varieties of seeds, this experience is worth the effort.
Rice is a member of the herb family. It is believed that it was first selected and bred in China along the Yangtze River. In Great Britain it is called rice, in Portugal and Spain – arroz, and in France – riz. In his country China he is called Baifan, and in India – Basmati. Most people are aware of the role of rice in cooking around the world. The grain is cleaned of motoblocks, collected, and then steamed into delicious dishes. White rice is needed in many countries. Instant white rice is available at any grocery store, as well as brown rice, which has a lower glycemic index.
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The life cycle of rice
The life cycle of rice has several stages. Rice seeds and the growth of the initial blades of seedlings constitute the germination phase. In the next vegetative state, cultivators or main stems develop in a process called tillering. The ripe rice plant has from three to twelve plows. Rice plants in areas of poor quality produce more cultivators, but panicles ripen unevenly. Rice during its life turns from green to gold. Flowers cluster together at the tops of motoblocks. Depending on the species, the color of the flowers is very different. After the rice flowers bloom and wither, the seed heads (or panicles) appear and twist over the cultivators.
You can think about growing a crop of rice in food, even ornamental. Some of my favorite features, such as black, are considered decorative. When looking for rice seeds, choose the one that suits your needs. Since there are so many different types of rice, you need to have a good game plan for maximum yield.
How You Can Become A Rice Farmer
- Dry and semi-dry system
To grow rice in this system, you need to prepare the field by giving a few plows and harrows. During plowing and harrowing, add a lot of organic content. You must add organic matter to the soil at least 2-4 weeks before sowing or planting.
- Wet system
In a wet system, carefully plow the field and puddle with 3-5 cm of standing water in the field. The ideal depth of the puddle is about 10 cm in clay soils, loamy soils. Level the ground after the puddle, and this is important to facilitate the even distribution of water and fertilizer.
For commercial rice cultivation, you also need to apply some chemical fertilizers to get the maximum yield. Although the exact amount of fertilizer may vary from place to place. On average, you will need to enter about 50 kg of nitrogen, 12 kg of phosphorus and 12 kg of potassium. Carry out a soil test before applying chemical fertilizers. And, if possible, consult an agricultural professional in your area for good advice.
Rice seed quality and selection
Seeds are a living product that must be properly grown, harvested and processed to realize the yield potential of any type of rice. Good quality seeds can increase yields by 5-20%. The use of good seeds leads to a reduction in sowing rates, higher yield germination, reduced transplants, more uniform plantings and more intensive early crop growth. Intensive growth in the early stages reduces weed problems and increases crop resistance to pests and diseases. All these factors contribute to higher yields and more productive rice farms.
Good seeds are clean (of the selected variety), complete and uniform in size, viable (more than 80% similarity to good seedling strength), free of weed seeds, seed-borne diseases, pathogens, insects or other substances. Selecting the seeds of the appropriate rice variety, the appropriate environment in which it will be grown, and ensuring that the seeds selected for this variety are of the highest quality are an important first step in rice production.
Before planting rice, the soil must be in the best physical condition for crop growth, and the soil surface must be level. Soil preparation involves plowing and harrowing to “cultivate” or dig, mix and level the soil. Tillage allows the seeds to be planted to the desired depth and also helps to control weeds. Farmers can cultivate the land themselves using hoes and other equipment, or they can be helped by draft animals such as buffaloes, tractors and other machinery.
Then the ground is leveled to reduce the amount of water consumed through the uneven cells of too deep water or open ground. Effective leveling allows the seedlings to attach more easily, reduces the amount of effort required to manage the crop, and improves both grain quality and yield.
Sun and temperature
Rice plants need at least six to eight hours of sun a day. Less than six hours will be harmful. Choose a sunny place for planting. Despite the fact that rice varieties prefer zones 9a -10b, the top versions can be grown to zone 4a. Lowland varieties require a longer growing season, and mountain rice can produce in a shorter time.
The ideal temperature range for mountain varieties is from 55 to 80 degrees. Lowland varieties can withstand cool weather of 50 degrees and above. At 86 degrees, the unidentified lower rice tries to survive. Both varieties are sensitive to frost, and mountain rice does not cope well with excessive heat. Use a frost cloth to protect plants from frost damage. Shaded canvas for rice gardening in hot lowlands helps protect burnt leaves, but should not be necessary.
Water and humidity
Rice plants love wet stalks and prefer moisture at their base. Lowland varieties require regular flooding or at least 2 inches of ground water for plants at least six to 6 inches tall. Flooding 2 to 6 inches helps rice plants provide moisture and weed control.
Mining requires at least one inch of water to soak the soil for a week. You will get the maximum return from your harvest if you irrigate mountain rice with a drip line. Drip irrigation gives higher yields, consistent water and higher absorption of soil nutrients. If it is constantly raining, your rice plants will not need watering.
Rice grows on different types of soils, so it is one of the most cultivated crops in the world. In lowland areas, it uses fertile growing media, but can grow in loamy clay with good flooding. In the highlands, make adjustments to well-rotted compost before planting. Upland variants are still produced on poor soils with proper irrigation. They can withstand a wide pH range from 3.5 to 8.5. Lowland varieties need a slightly more acidic pH, while mountain varieties need a more neutral one.
You do not need to prune this herbaceous plant until it is time to thresh the seeds for harvesting. Pruning dead leaves is detrimental to the growth cycle. After you have threshed the grain, remove the remaining leaves. Each plant gives an annual harvest.
Rice is propagated from untreated, intact seeds with husks. Spread the seeds on your plot before planting in the spring after the last frosts, so that in the fall there was something to collect again. Cover the scattered seeds with compost and fill them if necessary. If you are gardening in containers, fill your bucket with 4-inch soil, compost-adjusted. Then sow the seeds. Transplant the seedlings outdoors or move the container to a sunny place when the seedlings are installed.
Termites and rice water weevils feed on the roots of rice plants. If they have their way, rice stalks may lose their ability to bear fruit, which will make harvesting a disappointment. Pyrethrin is effective against both, although termites are difficult to control. Autumn army worms and rice trunks are both larvae of the moth. They respond well to treatment with Bacillus thuringiensis, but can also be treated with pyrethrin or spinosad. Some foliage can also be a problem, but insecticidal soap or pyrethrin will also control them effectively. Grasshoppers can also be opportunistic pests on your stems, but BT is effective against most species.
Growing ducks with grass rice is a cultural method of insect control. Ducks look for insects on food crops and hunt them to survive. This looks like a fun project and a way to keep insects out of your bucket or bed. Fish also feed on insects in flooded rice fields, so there is another interesting project in gardening!