Surveying and planning of farmstead is the process by which land is measured on a farm. Such measurements on tables, plans or layout are carried out for specific purposes. It can also mean measuring and mapping the position, size and boundaries of a plot of agricultural land.
In the past, agriculture lacked scientific methods due to poor planning of farms for certain purposes on a large hectare of land. The results of this lack of farm survey and planning negatively led to low agricultural production. However, nowadays the practice of surveying and planning on large hectares of land, as a rule, leads to optimal land use, as well as to the maximum yield from agricultural production.
Common equipments used for Surveying and planning of farmstead
- Far pole: It may be made of wood or metal. It usually has different length ranges from 1.8 m, 2.4 m, 3.0 m, and it can be built in the shape of a circle or octagon according to the purpose. The landfill is usually painted in different colors of black, red and white. This is done so that it can be seen in the distance. This equipment is used for marking places. It has a thin pointed end that allows it to stay firmly in place. This equipment can also be used for straight lines.
- Arrow or pin: This is a very useful surveying equipment that consists of steel wires. It has a length of about 30 cm with one end bent into a ring, and the other part ends with a thin pointed end. An arrow or pin is used to accurately create points or stations.
- Günther’s chain: This is a surveyor’s chain that was used before the opening of the measuring tapes. It is made of steel wire, which has the shape of dumbbells. The sequential chain is attached to another at a point with three small rings. The Hunter chain is a geodetic equipment about 20,130 m long. The sequential chain consists of about 100 links, and each subsequent link has a size of about 19.80 cm. The handle at both ends of the equipment is made of brass. The equipment is used to accurately measure the length and width of the ground. The link is the distance between the two central rings.
- Measuring tapes: Two types of steel tapes or linen tapes are used, the side of the measuring tape is denoted in metric units and the other in imperial units. A metric unit is a measurement made in acres or hectares, while an imperial unit is a measurement made in meters. For example, a school farm with an area of one hectare is equal to ten thousand square meters, ie 1 hectare = 10,000 square meters. The measuring tape has different lengths and types, depending on the size it receives from the manufacturer. It is used to accurately measure the length, width and height of the earth from different points.
- Prismatic compass: This surveying equipment consists of a prism and a compass map. The latter is indicated in degrees, half degrees, minutes and seconds clockwise. Aiming slot in the equipment allows the surveying team to see the “spots”. It is used to identify bearings. It can also be used to measure angular distances. A prismatic compass is usually placed on a stand to raise it to a considerable height above the ground. This is a portable surveying equipment.
- Theodolite: This is geodetic equipment that is placed on a tripod. A tripod stand is usually the base of the equipment, a lower level plate containing a graduated horizontal circle. This horizontal circle is made of glass or brass. The equipment usually contains alcohol. The presence of this spirit allows the surveyor to determine the horizontal plane, which helps in accurately measuring the angles of height or depression of the land from a certain place where the equipment is installed. Theodolite is the most important equipment used to inspect farms. It consists of a tripod, tribe, bottom plate, top plate, pin axis, telescope, circles and a high-altitude bubble.
- Lighthouse or pillar: This is a solid block of concrete and mortar, which is usually rectangular in shape. A lighthouse or pillar usually has a height range of about 2 feet -3 feet. Inscriptions such as the size or land number of the surveyor are indicated at the top of this vertically mounted surveying equipment. Soluble paste is often used to apply data to the surface of a beacon or pole, as it helps prevent vital data from being scraped off or washed away from the surface over an extended period of time.
Factors taken into account when Surveying and planning of farmstead
- Climate: Climate is a vital factor to consider when planning a homestead. Climate elements include precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, air movement and light intensity. These factors that prevail in the area should be favorable for farm planning. If adverse climatic conditions tend to prevail in agriculture, planning will be halted.
- Terrain: The nature of the land affects the slope and height of the farm. The terrain of a certain area significantly affects the planning of the estate. Plain lands are easier to plant than steep or sloping. This is the reason why flat lands are better than steep or uneven lands.
- Nature of the soil: The nature of the soil in a given area affects the level of planning. Farm planning is usually carried out on loamy or sandy soil. But not on clay soil, because there is a good soil structure; high porosity and low water retention in loamy and sandy soils. Clay soil retains the largest amount of water due to its low porosity, which leads to flooding of water in the area. Areas with a good watering schedule due to the controlled level of infiltration and infiltration of water into the soil. Thus, a proper watering schedule is a necessary requirement when planning a farm.
- Good road network: In the farm planning process, the farm layout should be accessible to facilitate better transport of inputs and outputs to and from the farm.
- Economic factors: Farm planning takes into account the availability of an adequate capital plan, rate of return, implicit and explicit investment costs and necessary economic factors. Where these economic factors are favorable, this usually contributes to the speed with which planning is carried out.
ALSO CHECK: List of Modern Farm machinery and implement
What to do before surveying and planning of farmstead
- Isolation of the administrative unit: The administrative unit, otherwise known as the office building, should also normally be isolated from other structures in the holding. This is done to prevent environmental disturbance of animals in pens and barns, as excessive noise affects the temperament of animals. It also prevents the release of an offensive odor that pollutes the air of the office building, while also placing the processing units away from the administrative unit. The main advantage of isolating the administrative unit is the promotion of effective noise and pollution control.
- Growing crops on fertile land: With proper farm planning, crops are cultivated on fertile land on the farm. This contributes to the optimal yield of plants. Infertile lands with a shortage of nutrients and organic matter lead to low yields.
- Avoidance of erosion-prone areas: To accurately locate the farm, the areas to be used for this purpose should not be subject to erosion, which could lead to loss of capital, animals, crops and labor resources involved in the investment. Based on this, the area intended for agricultural production should be located in a safe area that is not subject to erosion.
- Good accessibility: There is a need for good accessibility to farm areas where crops are grown, animals are kept and machinery is stored and housed. The planning of the farm can be done on a rectangular plot, block or fields, using the method 3-4-5 according to the specific design required in a given period.
Soil erosion is a major watershed problem in many developing countries. There can be many different sources of erosion in the watershed. The main sources should be identified in the stages of the preliminary investigation, once they are identified, a detailed survey should be carried out using criteria and forms developed according to local needs. The main objectives are to identify the main sites of erosion, to determine their extent, to study their causes and, most importantly, to suggest possible corrective or rehabilitation measures.
The survey should be focused not on academic, but on management. Interpretation of aerial photographs and field inspections should generally be sufficient for most erosion studies. The following sections briefly describe five studies related to erosion:
Geological survey and geomorphological analysis
The geology and geomorphology of the watershed have significant features in relation to the river processes of riverbeds and hillsides and the rate of erosion. In many countries, geological maps and information may already be available. However, the scale of the map can often be small, and the information is not specific enough to cover the relevant watershed. Usually some checks and clarifications are needed.
If no information is available, a short survey is required. However, the watershed manager should clearly define what basic data is needed from a management point of view, and not require a general survey, which may include unwanted information and take too long. The main geological information required relates to erosion and deposition. Types of rocks, depth of weathering, structures, among other things, are the main problem.