Beans are one of the simplest crops to grow in the backyard. Plant legumes, and they will almost certainly grow and give a bountiful harvest with little effort on the part of the gardener. However, if you want to get the biggest and best harvest, you need to know a few things. Most importantly, understand the difference between beans and string beans.
Beans are the common name for the seeds of several genera of the family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal consumption. For centuries, people have planted beans for use as beans, peeled beans or dried beans. Read on to learn how to plant beans in your garden.
Suitable weather conditions
Because beans prefer warm weather, plant them at least a week after the last spring frosts. Bean seeds should not be planted indoors. Plant the seeds one inch deep. If you are planting bean bushes, sow the seeds two inches apart. If you are planting beans, place the seeds three inches apart along the wallpaper or fence.
The shrub variety may have some characteristics that return to the parent plant and grow like a bean. In fact, there have not been many explanations for what could cause this, or if some environmental conditions exacerbate the phenomenon. If your bean bush produces runners like a bean pole, you can cut the runners in a knot a little longer than they want the stems.
Days of maturity
60 to 90 days before harvest, depending on the variety. In general, beans take about 10 to 15 days longer than bush beans. If planted early, you can plant the autumn harvest in many areas. Autumn crops may require more days to harvest due to reduced sunlight and lower temperatures.
Sowing of bean seeds
Plant beans outdoors after the last frost in your area. Follow the instructions for the intervals on the package. The distance between the plants can vary significantly depending on the type of beans. Bean seeds are large, which facilitates their placement.
Where to plant beans
Grow beans in full sun, 8 hours of sun or more daily. Beans will grow in partial shade, but the harvest will not be complete. Grow beans in well-drained soil rich in organic matter. Prepare the beds in advance by placing 5-7 cm of old compost in the soil. planting beans where the soil is high in nitrogen or where freshly grown greens; these beans will give green leaves but few beans. Beans prefer soil pH from 6.0 to 6.8.
Beans grow best at temperatures from 50 to 85 ° F (10-29 ° C). The optimum soil growth temperature for beans is from 60 ° to 85 ° F (15-29 ° C). 4 weeks before the middle of the last frosts to start the season. Start the beans indoors in biodegradable peat or paper pots that can be placed whole in the garden so as not to interfere with the roots of the plants. Beans may not withstand transplanting if its roots are damaged. Install a transplant in the garden two weeks after the last frosts. Start with beans from seed in the garden two weeks after the last frosts. Sow bean bushes every two weeks for continuous harvesting or follow a bean bush with longer ripening beans. Beans do not set pods at temperatures above 80 ° F (26.7 ° C). Set aside time for your plantings to avoid hot weather. Beans can last in the garden until the first frosts in the fall. In areas with mild winters, beans can be sown in the fall for harvest.
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How to grow beans
Plant the bean seeds to a depth of 2.5 to 3.8 cm in depth, a little deeper into the loose sandy soil. The minimum soil temperature for the beginning of bean seeds in the garden is 10 ° C (50 ° F). 4 inches apart; place rows 18 to 24 inches (45-61 cm) apart. Beans from vegetable varieties from 4 to 6 inches apart; place rows at a distance of 30 to 36 inches (76-91 cm) from each other.
Beans can also be planted on small hills or mounds of 5 or 6 seeds per hill; space hills at a distance of 40 inches (101 cm) from each other. Install the trellis, poles or pegs or other supports in place during planting. Bean seeds germinate in 8-10 days at 21 ° C (70 ° F). Seedlings at a distance of 4-6 inches (10-15 cm) from each other. Remove weak seedlings by pruning them at ground level with scissors, carefully without disturbing the roots of the remaining seedlings. Beans can be overflowing during planting; they will use each other to support. Grow 4 to 8 bean plants per household member.
Nurturing your beans plant
- Grow beans in evenly moist soil. Give the beans 2.5 to 3.8 cm of water each week. Do not soak the seeds before planting and do not water after sowing. Bean seeds can crack and germinate poorly if the soil moisture is too high during sowing. Keep the soil evenly moist during flowering and pod formation. Beans in dry soil do not bloom and do not tie pods. Rain or surface irrigation during flowering can cause flowers and small pods to fall. Top watering will also leave the beans susceptible to disease. Mulch to retain moisture when soil temperature exceeds 15.6 ° C (60 ° F).
- Beans are best fertilized with aged garden compost or commercial organic planting mix. Both are rich in plant nutrients. Beans fix their own nitrogen; they establish mutual exchange with soil nitrogen-fixing bacteria that produce soil nitrogen beans. Fertilizing beans with nitrogen-rich fertilizers will lead to the growth of green leaves and a few pods. Avoid using greens or nitrogen-rich fertilizers before planting beans.
- Put the poles, pegs or wallpaper in place before planting the beans. Choose supports that are high enough to grow the variety. Keep weeds away from beans; weeds compete for soil moisture, hide pests and diseases. Carefully process the beans so as not to disturb the small root system. Do not process beans when they are wet; it can spread fungal spores. Do not grow beans in one place every year. Return the beans to areas where lettuce, zucchini, broccoli, brussels sprouts, kale, cauliflower or cabbage have grown in the last year or two.
Dealing with pests
Beans can be attacked by aphids, Mexican bean beetles, flea beetles, cucumber beetles, deciduous beetles, mites and snails. Look for eggs and infections and crush them between your fingers and thumb. Pinch and remove large invasions. Mexican beetles, cucumber beetles and fleas can skeletalize leaves. Collect adults, larvae and egg mass by hand. Spray large populations with insecticidal soap, rapeseed oil or kaolin.
Beans are sensitive to powdery mildew, anthracnose, fungus and mosaic virus. Varieties resistant to plant diseases. Keep the garden clean and free of debris. Weeds and debris can contain disease-carrying insects. Avoid treating plants when they are wet so as not to spread fungal spores. Remove diseased plants; put them in a paper bag and put in the trash.
Beans are susceptible to many soil-borne diseases; rotating the beans so that they do not grow in one place more often than every three years will reduce the number of soil-borne diseases. Beans with mist spray with compost tea or a mixture of 1 part skim milk to 9 parts water; both are antifungal solutions. ick Collect greens or beans when the pods are young and tender, about 3 inches long, or just before the seeds begin to bulge and grow loose.
Bush beans will be ready for harvest from 50 to 60 after sowing. Polar beans will be ready for harvest in 60-90 days after harvest. Collect greens or beans if the pods are young and tender, about 3 inches long, or just before the seeds begin to sprout. Grown pods will not reach their peak. Cut or pluck beans from the plant; be careful not to tear the pods from the branches. Continue to collect the pods before they ripen so that the plant can continue to bloom and give new pods. When the seeds ripen on a bush or vine, the plant will die. Avoid picking beans during hot or very cold weather.
Bean seed stage
Beans give a variety of seeds, each hidden inside the pod. As the pod ripens on the plants, it dries and opens in the sun. Eventually, the seeds will fall out of the hard, dry, pod-lined ground – or gardeners can remove them for storage or planting later. Bean seeds actually consist of two halves called cotyledons. Each cotyledon contains a source of food for the young plant. New legumes can actually live by storing food in the cotyledon for several days, if necessary, until they reach the nutrients in the soil.
Germination refers to a seed when it begins to germinate. Bean seeds germinate or germinate when water dissolves or cracks the hard shell around the seed or germ. The heat speeds up the process. Beans will send a tiny (embryonic) root, which is called a root.
Shell splitting and root growth
After splitting the shell, the first thing that comes out of the bean seeds is the roots. Slowly the roots unfold from the seeds, reaching for moisture and nutrients. The roots look like white threads when they grow from bean seeds.
Once the seeds germinate and the roots grow back, the bean plant begins to push out a single stem. When the stem emerges from the soil, two small leaves emerge. The first leaves that appear from a bean plant do not look like the typical leaves of a bean plant. They are round and help the plant to quickly grow into a strong, mature plant.
These leaves (also called cotyledons) grow above the ground, not below the surface of the soil, which is common to other plants, and are connected to the seeds. a pair of leaves provides photosynthesis of the seedling. They fall as soon as the mature leaves appear.